This concept of sustainable development aims to retain economic advancement and progress while protecting the long-term value of the environment; it “provides a framework for the integration of environmental policies and development strategies”(UN General Assembly, 1987). On the other hand, long before the late 20th century, scholars argued that there need not be a trade-off between environmental sustainability and economic development. Understanding the sustainable development is the establishing principle for meeting human development aims while at the same time sustaining the capability of natural systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services upon which the economy and society depend. The anticipated result is a state of society where living situations and resource use continue to meet human needs without undermining the integrity and stability of the natural arrangement. Sustainable development can be classified as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the capability of future generations. Despite the fact that the modern concept of sustainable development is commonly derived from the Brundtland Report (1987), it is rooted in prior ideas about sustainable forest management and twentieth century environmental concerns. As the concept developed, it has shifted to focus more on economic, social and environmental protection for upcoming generations. It has been recommended that the word sustainability should be viewed as humanity’s target goal of human-ecosystem equilibrium (homeostasis), while sustainable development denotes to the holistic approach and temporal processes that lead us to the end point of sustainability.The modern economies make every effort to reconcile ambitious economic development and obligations of preserving the natural resources and ecosystem, the two are traditionally seen as of conflicting nature. As a replacement for of holding climate change commitments and other sustainability measures as a drug to economic development, turning and leveraging them into market opportunities will do greater good. The economic development brought by such organized practices in an economy is known as Managed Sustainable Development.
The conception of sustainable development has been and still is topic for criticism, comprising the question of what is to be sustained in sustainable development. It has been claimed that there is no such thing as a sustainable use of a non-renewable resource, since any positive rate of exploitation will eventually lead to the exhaustion of earth’s limited stock. Sustainable development is in the news every day as the world copes with climate change, biodiversity loss and resource scarcity. There are ten key factors that influence development sustainability.
- Participation and Ownership: Get the stakeholders (both men and women) to genuinely participate in design and implementation. Build on their initiatives and demands, get them to monitor the project and periodically evaluate it for results.
- Capacity Building and Training: Training stakeholders to take over should begin from the start of any project and continue throughout. The right approach should both motivate and transfer skills to men and women.
- Government Policies: Development projects should be aligned with local government policies.
- Financial: In some countries and sector financial sustainability is difficult in the medium-term. Training in local fundraising is a possibility, as is identifying complementary with the private sector, user pays approaches, and encouraging policy reforms.
- Management and Organization: Activities that integrate with or build onto local structures may have better prospects for sustainability than those which establish new or parallel structures.
- Social, Gender and Culture: The introduction of new ideas, technologies and skills require an understanding of local decision-making systems, gender divisions and cultural preferences.
- Technology: All outside equipment must be selected carefully considering the local finance available for maintenance and replacement. Cultural acceptability and the local capacity to maintain equipment and buy spare parts are key factors.
- Environment: Poor non-urban communities that depend on natural resources should be involved in identifying and managing environmental risks. Urban communities should identify and manage waste disposal and pollution risks.
- External Political and Economic Factors: In a weak economy, projects should not be too complicated, ambitious or expensive.
- Realistic Duration: A short project may be inadequate for solving entrenched problems in a sustainable way, particularly when behavioral and institutional changes are intended. A long project, may on the other hand, promote dependence.
The sustainable development agenda has been under worldwide discussion. The UN Open Working Group (OWG) for SDGs agreed and proposed a set of 17 SDGs with 169 targets and 304 indicators for post 2015 till 2030. The goals are broad and interdependent, yet each has a separate list of targets to achieve. In total, the proposed 17 SDGs of Nepal, i.e.:
Goal 1: No poverty (End poverty in all its forms everywhere).
Goal 3: Good health and well-being for people (Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages).
Goal 6: Clean water and sanitation (Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all).
Goal 7: Affordable and clean energy (Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all).
Goal 9: Industry, Innovation, and Infrastructure (Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization, and foster innovation).
Goal 10: Reducing inequalities (Reduce income inequality within and among countries).
Goal 11: Sustainable cities and communities (Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable).
Goal 12: Responsible consumption and production (Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns).
Goal 14: Life below water (Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development).
Goal 15: Life on land (Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss).
Goal 16: Peace, justice and strong institutions (Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels).
Goal 17: Partnerships for the goals (trengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development).
In conclusion, the principles agreed upon in Resolution A/RES/66/288, entitled “The Future We Want“. That has been shortened to “2030 Agenda“. The independent campaign “Project Everyone” has met some resistance. Implementation as of 2016 is described as “Localizing the SDGs” to highlight the “Role of Local Institutions” and “Local Actors”.
. Former Vice Chair Person of National Planning Commission.
. PhD research in Governance and Sustainability in Irrigation Systems.